Being aware of job stress, and proactive about its potential effect on staff and their ongoing mental health, is an important component of ensuring employee satisfaction and OHS in any business.
But it is crucial not to confuse job stress with a psychological injury, which may or may not have been caused by the work environment.
the difference between the two
A psychological or mental disorder includes a range of cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms which ultimately interfere with an employee’s functioning and can significantly affect how they feel, think, behave and interact with others.
This is to be contrasted with job ‘stress’, which can be better described by referring to physical and emotional symptoms arising in work situations.
For example, an employee who is experiencing conflict with their manager and feels mildly apprehensive about working shifts with the manager, including feeling physical symptoms such as a slightly increased heart rate or perhaps perspiration, is likely to be suffering from job stress.
An employee who has sustained a psychological injury may well experience ‘stronger’ symptoms more commonly associated with a diagnosis of anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder arising from their interactions with their manager.
Examples of psychological disorders
Psychological disorders can generally be grouped into three types: mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder), anxiety disorders (including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder), and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia or borderline personality disorder).
There is a wide spectrum according to which the severity of any condition can be assessed, and simply because an employee has been diagnosed with a condition that is generally perceived to be ‘serious’, such as schizophrenia, this certainly does not preclude them from being fully functioning members of your team.
early signs and symptoms of psychological disorders
It goes without saying that the signs and symptoms of a psychological disorder differ depending on the type of injury. Although far from an exhaustive list, some symptoms could include:
- Depression: significant changes in behaviour including difficulty concentrating, drinking more alcohol as a means of self-medicating, lack of energy, finding it difficult to manage tasks which were previously easily handled, increased absenteeism.
- Bipolar disorder: extraordinary levels of energy, dramatic change in personality in the workplace, struggling to meet reasonable deadlines, and symptoms of depression (when the employee is ‘down’)
- Anxiety disorders: unusual irritability, anxiety attacks, excessive worrying about workload or specific tasks.
- Schizophrenia: demonstrated suspicion of co-workers, ‘odd’ ideas or erratic behaviours, talking to themselves.
Tactful and considered interventions are encouraged in circumstances where employers, managers or HR initially begin to notice signs of distress or job stress.
Although intervention and assisting an employee in seeking professional assistance can in some cases possibly prevent symptoms from deteriorating, and the employee from developing a full psychological illness, this should only be undertaken by qualified and sympathetic staff. Care also needs to be taken to maintain the privacy of the employee at all stages of the intervention process.
how is a psychological injury diagnosed?
Only an appropriately licensed medical practitioner, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist or general practitioner should diagnose a psychological injury. It is anticipated that, if required, this medical practitioner will either prescribe appropriate therapy, pharmaceutical relief or both. Further, that practitioner should also conduct a ‘capacity for work’ assessment, if this is required before the employee is able to return to their usual duties.
With appropriate support, even employees with significant psychological injuries or disorders should be able to continue working. Of course, this will require support from the employer in ensuring that potential ‘triggers’ are avoided as much as possible.
Key determinants in assessing whether employees with psychological injuries are able to continue working include an assessment of their interpersonal functioning with their co-workers, the risks to the personal safety of any other employees, and the potential side effects of any medications.
Our article Mental Health in the Workplace offers more information on mental health issues. Contact us to find out how we can assist with the trickier aspects of ensuring that your staff are as healthy, happy and productive as possible.